alaskabar.org

Home » For Lawyers » Links & Resources » Alaska Bar Rag (Quarterly Newspaper) » Our Colorful Past » Early woman attorney pioneers reform in Fairbanks

Early woman attorney pioneers reform in Fairbanks

Aline Chenot Baskerville Bradley Beegler, 1867-1943

By Phyllis Demuth Movius
(From the Alaska Bar Rag, January-March, 2004. References denoted in parentheses)

"Barnette was the leader of the claim-jumping, miner-robbing gang which held this camp by the throat since its inception. With Barnette Courts and Barnette Juries, the people had no redress. Now comes the most wonderfully terrible part of this tale."(1)


French born Aline Chenot trained as a singer in Paris, a doctor in Philadelphia and a lawyer in Fairbanks. Juggling this unlikely combination of careers she found her niche in the north where she flourished amidst sorrow and trials, joy and opportunity.

Born in Paris on December 18, 1867 to Jacques and Louise Renaud Chenot, Aline lived in Europe until 1886 when at age 19 she immigrated with her family to the United States. Her older sister, Louise, eventually married German-born Benedict Stalen and lived in Elgin, Illinois where he worked at the watch factory by that name. Her younger sister, Anna Adele, earned degrees from the University of Chicago and Smith College and had a career as a professor of French at Western College for Women in Oxford, Ohio and Smith College from which she retired in 1944 after 33 years of service. A brother, Emil, settled in Los Angeles(2).

A life in Pennsylvania
On April 5, 1894, Aline married Thomas Hardy Baskerville of New York. Ten years her senior, Hardy as he was called, was a practicing physician in Pennsylvania. Possibly inspired by his work, Aline abandoned her life-long plan to be a professional singer in exchange for a medical career. However, in the 1800s, the idea that women should be trained as physicians met with animosity. In fact, as late as 1872 the German anatomist Theodor von Bischoff preached that because of woman's smaller brain, her physical weakness and her gentle nature she was unfit for medical science. He argued further that "by both the divine and natural order, women lacked the rare ability to work in the natural sciences and especially medicine.(3)"

Nevertheless, closed doors to women at the existing American medical schools resulted in the opening of women's medical colleges in Philadelphia, New York City, Chicago and Baltimore. Begun in 1850, the Women's Medical College of Pennsylvania was considered the best of the four because of its early beginning, capable leadership and unusual local support. By the turn of the century when Aline was ready to begin her training, coed opportunities at American universities were emerging, and the women's schools began to close for lack of funds and students. However, the University of Pennsylvania Medical School continued to bar women from admission until World War I.

Therefore, Aline's choices were limited if she planned to attend school in Pennsylvania where she and Hardy lived. She graduated from the Woman's Medical College of Pennsylvania in 1903.(4) Following an internship, the Doctors Baskerville left their apartment on Lombard Street in Philadelphia and made a new home in Economy, northwest of Pittsburgh where Aline was licensed to practice in Beaver and Allegheny counties. There, Aline provided examinations for the Lady Maccabees, the women's branch of the men's fraternal insurance group called Knights of the Maccabees. Both the men and women had lodges that were quite active primarily in doctoring the ill, providing relief for destitute families, and general socializing.(5)

Relocating to clean air in Far North Fairbanks
In 1907, when Aline was 39 years old, Hardy's chronic asthma forced the couple to seek the cooler, dryer air in the north. Arriving in Fairbanks during the summer, Aline, indulged her trained soprano voice and immersed herself in the seasonal performing arts scene. Days before her first concert on August 11 her talent was praised when the Fairbanks Daily Times proclaimed, "Dr. Aline Baskerville Will Make Her First Appearance and Her Reputation Has Already Preceded Her."(6) Reporters said she was "one of the best singers" who had ever come north, and after performing Just a Song at Twilight she was dubbed "a most valuable acquisition to the music circles of Fairbanks."(7) A week later she performed a duet and a solo at the Presbyterian Church services at which Reverend S. Hall Young, the pioneer missionary who founded the Presbyterian Church in Fairbanks, preached.(8)

After making a name for herself musically, Aline opened a medical practice holding the distinction of the second woman doctor in Fairbanks- Dr. Dora Fugard preceding her in 1903.(9) Apparently Aline and Hardy felt comfortable in Fairbanks because by fall they were ready to experience their first Alaska winter ensconced in what a friend described as a "picturesque large log cabin" that they bought at the corner of 8th Avenue and Cushman Street. (10) However, within a year this contentment turned to profound sorrow.

From widowhood to a miner's wife
On September 8, 1908, Thomas Hardy Baskerville died as a result of an inoperable spinal tumor. Receiving constant care from Aline during the final days of his illness, he passed away at St. Matthew's Hospital. Two days later over 100 Fairbanksans paid their respects at a funeral service conducted by Reverend Mr. Betticher at the Episcopal Church. This was quite a tribute to a man who had lived in the community only a year, but illustrates the tight bonds formed quickly on the frontier where reliance on each other was not just part of the social fabric but an integral part of survival.

The newspaper article announcing Hardy Baskerville's death described Aline as "almost prostrated over his death." (11) Therefore, it must have caught the community by surprise when three and half months later on December 21st Aline married James Freeman Bradley a tall, handsome Canadian miner. They had met when James guided a hunt for Aline and Hardy earlier that year. The story has it that shortly after Hardy's death, James approached Aline saying he had fallen in love with her on that trip and wanted to marry her. After the wedding James moved into Aline's log cabin house on Cushman where she simply changed her name on the sign advertising her medical practice. Although a hasty union, a family friend described their relationship as very happy.(12)

Aline affiliated with the Presbyterian Church where she was choir director and a member of its Ladies' Aid Society that was organized about the time she arrived in Fairbanks(13). In 1909, the ladies compiled a cookbook of members' favorite recipes to which both Bradleys contributed. Aline provided practical instructions to puree potatoes, peas and beans. The introduction to a reprint edition of this cookbook suggests that in consideration of her profession as a doctor these may have been designed as baby food or nourishment for the sick, while her recipes for a simple French Ragout and lettuce salad with French dressing suggest her heritage and a need for efficiency. The final section of the cookbook contained recipes submitted by men, and J. F. Bradley's instructions for cooking moose began with the tongue in cheek advisement to "first catch your moose."(14)

Beginning with her first days in Fairbanks Aline delighted in sharing her musical talent with the community. In November 1910, she was part of a quartet that presented Van Alstine's Love Light at the musical portion of the annual St. Matthew's Hospital fundraising event.(15) On a regular basis Aline performed with the Fairbanks Choral Club and one year served as director of the Fairbanks Oratorio Society.(16) Aline so generously shared her talent that omission of her name in reporting a particular concert caused The Alaska Citizen to chide the Fairbanks Times, its competing newspaper. Charging the Times with "cheap journalism," the Citizen warned that if Aline, a prominent Fairbanksan, endured repeated slights, she may become "discouraged from giving her services free for the entertainment of the public." (17) However, changing events in Fairbanks had more to do with outlining a new path for Aline's interests and career than did bruised feelings.

Leading spunky activists in banking reform
Little was known about E. T. Barnette when he founded Fairbanks in 1903. However, by 1911 every resident had an opinion of him. In his biography of Barnette, Alaska historian Terrence Cole recounted "that Captain Barnette had both more money and more enemies than any man in Alaska."(18) But, according to Cole, Barnette had no idea how deeply hated he was by these enemies until the consolidated Fairbanks Banking Company/Washington-Alaska Bank unexpectedly closed its doors in January 1911.(19)

Caught unawares by the closure, the community charged Barnette and the bank's directors with mismanagement and fraud. Angry depositors formed a representative committee to investigate-six men and Aline.(20) When Barnette, who had been "Outside" at the time the bank collapsed, finally returned to Fairbanks in mid-February, the community felt relieved that an explanation would be forthcoming and justice would be done.

Imagine their disbelief when Barnette had no acceptable solution to the problem nor did a grand jury find enough wrong-doing to indict him.(21) An editorial in the Fairbanks Weekly Times warned that "wildcat banks" could lawfully operate in the Territory, and "in the absence of laws necessary to protect unsuspecting depositors from financial tricksters, it is plainly up to the people to look out for themselves as best they can."(22) The same newspaper reported that E. T. Barnett and his wife, Isabell, slipped out of town the previous night in a "double-ender" drawn by a white horse.

Disgusted with the corruption, secrecy of this affair, and the way the case was being handled, Aline and four other Fairbanks women formed a new depositors' committee to take action(23) Some 225 depositors attended the first meeting called by Aline on a Tuesday evening in early April at which a police escort protected her from threats made by a known community trouble-maker. Convincingly she shared the results of her research into the case, and the depositors voted without dissent to further the prosecution of Captain Barnette on the charge of embezzlement; to ask the court to call a special grand jury; to ask the court to remove Receiver Hawkins; to ask for the appointment of the special accountant, and lastly, the depositors present voted to pledge themselves to the extent of five per cent of their deposits to assist in the investigation of the bank situation and the employment of the best legal advice obtainable.(24)

The day after the meeting Aline and her committee were praised by the local newspapers for the "spunk" they demonstrated in trying to get to the bottom of the situation. As a result of this initiative, both the Fairbanks Weekly Times and the Fairbanks Daily News-Miner pledged to do more aggressive investigative reporting. Working in concert the editors believed they could sleuth out the truth. To maintain momentum Aline shared her opinions with Territorial Governor Walter Clark who highlighted the following passage in her letter to him.

That Grand Jury was a wonderful body of men--a few may have been good men--four were in debt to the bank; two were men of notorious character; one of them lives at a nominal rent in Barnette's house, and shamelessly saw Barnette's attorney every day. Barnette's subsequent actions showed that he knew everything that transpired in that Jury room. He had come here to quiet a few dangerous large depositors, and see that that grand jury did not harm him-which it did not. THE FAILURE TO INDICT WAS NO SURPRISE TO THE PUBLIC.(25)

A petition outlining the details of the case and Aline's analysis of the jury was presented to the District Court for the Fourth Division of Alaska and to Governor Clark. But, the "most wonderfully terrible part of this tale," she explained, was that F. W. Hawkins, one of the bank's cashiers in on Barnette's scheme, was appointed as receiver during the litigation for a salary of $400 a month.(26) Aline pointed out that Hawkins was still in this position despite cries from depositors. The women's committee urged his removal. The dramatic conclusion to the appeal urged clandestine secrecy.

Do not ask for assistance from Delegate Wickersham, [Aline wrote] for we do not know on which side he would stand, and we can afford to take no chances. The manner in which you will help us, we leave to your goodness and discretion. We are moving as quietly as possible, so as not to let the other side know what we are doing.(27)

While Aline urged Governor Clark to move secretly and quickly on this matter, the Fairbanks Daily News-Miner editor, W. F. Thompson, who had pledged to investigate this case, moved faster. On April 10, Thompson wrote to Delegate James Wickersham in Washington, D. C. asking for much the same things outlined by Aline's women's committee. A month later, Wickersham replied by telegram that he would send an investigative agent as soon as practical. Thompson's response was revealing.

The people of Tanana will be grateful for your action. Please remember that past investigations made in Alaska by department officials have been boys' play and jokes, and assure yourself personally that only high-class men are sent to conduct this investigation.(28)

Surprisingly, a mid-June Fairbanks newspaper article warned that E. T. Barnette was enroute to the Tanana Valley aboard the first through stern-wheeler of the year. Once there, a Fairbanks Weekly Times reporter asked Barnette, "Why did you come back?" Barnette responded, "Why shouldn't I come back?"(29) The conversation stalemated. Supposedly Barnette was still trying to work out the bank's problems and repay depositors their accounts.

The investigation that ensued led to the ultimate arrest of E. T. Barnette in late 1911, but his eight flamboyant attorneys waged a good battle on his behalf in December 1912. Out of 11 indictments against him on such charges as making false reports, perjury and embezzlement, only one misdemeanor charge was proved. Despite the prosecution's request for imprisonment, Judge Thomas Lyons fined Barnette only $1000.(30) Based on his accumulated wealth, this was hardly punishment. Hundreds of ruined Fairbanksans believed it was their money that Barnette used to buy his freedom in what W. F. Thompson called the " 'rottenest judicial farce the North has ever witnessed.' "(31) Frustrated by the turn of events, Aline retaliated.

On January 12, 1913, Aline and her committee staged a dramatic conflagration on the frozen Chena River at the foot of Cushman Street where they burned three effigies representing John L. McGinn, and John A. Clark, two of the bank's attorneys, and another labeled "Justice." Hundreds of townspeople turned out to cheer the women's vengeful effort to even the score with E. T. Barnette and his men.(32) However, according to her friend Jessie Bloom, for her actions Aline was snubbed by some Fairbanksans all the years she remained in the Territory.(33) In spite of this, Aline's perseverance paid off when three months later the first Legislature to convene in Alaska enacted the Territorial Banking Act. Except for national banks, all Alaska banks were now under territorial government regulation for the first time.(34) Aline's efforts had paid off, and her influence was felt Alaska-wide.

Public health beckons the new City Physician
With the bank failure case behind her Aline concentrated on her medical practice and redirected the focus of her life. A respected doctor, notice had been taken by the Fairbanks City Council that elected Aline City Physician from a slate of four applicants at an October 1913 meeting.(35) In this public health role, Aline wasted no time presenting a report to the council outlining ventilation deficiencies in the school building which received immediate attention.(36) Other issues raised were medical care for indigents, and dairy inspection to insure the safety of milk, the latter resulting in passage of legislation for quality control.

Aline filled this position, for which she received $50 a month (later $70), for a year and a half until April 1915 when the City Council abolished the office. During her tenure as City Physician Aline was appointed by Governor J. F. A. Strong to the Territorial Board of Medical Examiners.(37) At the same time Judge James Wickersham noted in his diary having a "long talk about political conditions with shrewd Mrs. Dr. Bradley."(38) Possibly at his urging Aline began self-directed study of the law intending to take the Alaska Bar Exam. Undoubtedly these medical appointments enhanced Aline's image and exposure in the Territory enabling greater recognition in the political arena on important issues about to become public.

Like many Alaskans, Aline was caught up in the volatile prohibition debate. An active member of the Woman's Christian Temperance Union (WCTU) she also chaired the "Fourth Division Drys," the Fairbanks women's group formed to push for the Bone Dry Law. Along with Margaret Keenan, Aline, who also served as Legislative Superintendent for the group, was credited with swaying the vote in the Fourth Division on election day 1916 when Alaskans decided two to one in favor of prohibition.(39) In addition, Aline worked with Alaska's Delegate to Congress, James Wickersham, to secure Territorial control of school funding. When Congress passed the Bone Dry Law in February 1917, Aline was one of three individuals, and the first in Fairbanks, to whom Wickersham telegraphed the news.(40) By spring 1918, Governor Strong was pleased to report that arrests and crime associated with alcohol had decreased dramatically in the first two months of that year, and C. L. Vawter, United States Deputy Marshal at Tanana predicted that when the last drop of cached alcohol disappeared, "all Alaska jails will go out of business."(41) Now that laws were in place to control the manufacture, importation and consumption of alcohol, Aline's interest turned yet again to other matters.

Activism whets a taste for the law
Although Aline accepted reappointment to the Territorial Board of Medical Examiners in September 1917, her study of the law under Fairbanks attorney Albert R. Heilig was sufficient for her to take the Bar Examination.(42) She passed her oral and written tests, and at the recommendation of the three-member examining committee that included attorney John A. Clark (whom Aline had hanged in effigy several years earlier), she was proposed for admission to the Alaska Bar.

However, Aline's husband's lack of American citizenship stalled the process.(43) (At the same time Aline made an unsuccessful bid for a seat on the City Council running on the Independent ticket. In fact, of six candidates, Aline had the fewest votes.(44) Being a relative newcomer may have had something to do with the dismal defeat. A newspaper article announcing the results noted that most of that election's winners were pioneers "having been in the North since the early days of the Dawson stampede."(45) Aline's mere nine years in Alaska may have been a hindrance.)

Aline's husband, James Bradley, was born in Nova Scotia, Canada and as a teenager moved to Missouri with his adoptive parents. Under the impression that his adoptive father had taken care of the citizenship matter long ago, James thought he was an American citizen and in fact had voted in several Fairbanks elections.(46) Nevertheless, his citizenship could not be proven, and his naturalization hearing was challenged on a legal technicality.(47)

Before the question could be settled, James Freeman Bradley died at home of pleuro-pneumonia at age 59 on November 29, 1918.(48) This then raised the question of Aline's citizenship since her marriage to a Canadian made her a subject of Great Britain.

Third marriage brings citizenship and bar membership
Because her first marriage made her an American, and Aline planned to remain in Fairbanks, she argued for her American citizenship.(49) It was not until October 1919, when Aline married her third husband Michael Beegler, himself a naturalized American, that her citizenship question was resolved. She was finally admitted to the Alaska Bar in November 1920, over three years after passing her exams.(50) On March 5, 1921, Aline became the first female attorney to appear before the Fairbanks bar.(51)

As before, Aline's period of widowhood was measured in months. According to one source, only weeks after James Bradley's death the first proposal came and they continued until 11 months later when on October 22, Aline married Michael Beegler a miner of German descent.(52) Michael, who came north in the 1898 stampede, was previously married in Fairbanks in 1913 to Kittie McGowan.(53) The couple later divorced.(54)

Immediately after his marriage to Aline, performed by Presbyterian Church minister Wallace Sutton Marple in Aline's Cushman Street home in the fall of 1919, the newlyweds left to spend the winter Outside visiting family and friends.(55) A miner from Livengood, Michael had established the practice of spending the harsher half of the year in a warmer climate, and apparently Aline adapted easily as the next 10 years were spent in this way. Because summers were spent in the Livengood mining district, Aline's practice of the law was limited, but in the fall 1922, the City Council selected her as city magistrate and legal adviser for a salary of $50 a month.(56)

A pioneer, and widow once again, in semi-retirement
By 1923, Aline was 56 years old, and evidence of her medical and legal practices declined. But, that does not imply that Aline shrank from view. In fact, quite the contrary. In July, Aline made history as aviator Carl Ben Eielson's passenger on the first flight to Brooks near Livengood. The compass-directed trip took only 55 minutes at an altitude of 4,000 feet and cost Aline $85. Thereafter, both Beeglers preferred air travel over the week-long river trip they had known.(57) At one point Michael remarked that the only way to beat expensive river travel into the Livengood Mining District was roads, but after the Farthest North Airplane Company began its service, he decided air travel could not be beat.(58)

In 1929, the Beeglers bought a house in southern California where they had spent the past few winters. When they returned to Fairbanks in the spring 1930 it was only to settle business affairs and prepare to retire Outside. A difficult task for Aline was the sale of her beloved log home on Cushman Street. The newspaper advertisement announcing its availability described beautiful furnishings, three bedrooms, hardwood floors, hot water heating and lots of closets. Of course its central location was played up as a selling point. By early summer Michael had sold most of his Livengood mining interests, and the Beeglers prepared to start south. On July 10, 1930, Michael and Aline left Fairbanks for the last time headed to Seward where they boarded the steamer Aleutian for their passage Outside. However, like the other times Aline's life seemed settled, tragedy loomed nearby.

In June 1931, Michael and Aline attended college commencement exercises in California for Franklin Zimmerman, son of Aline's good Fairbanks friend Mary Zimmerman. The day after Michael suffered a paralytic stroke and lost the use of his arms and legs. Five weeks later on July 17, he died in Highland Park, a Los Angeles suburb, at age 73. Ed Wickersham, brother of Judge James Wickersham, served along with other former Alaskans as pallbearers at the funeral.(59)

Aline continued to live in the Los Angeles area for another 12 years and managed some Fairbanks area mining interests from afar. She died of heart failure in Pasadena on June 19, 1943 at the age of 75. Although she had lived Outside for over a dozen years, her Alaskan roots remained strong, and her Fairbanks friends Bob Bloom and Mary Zimmerman handled her estate.

Aline showed tenacious courage as she moved through adulthood in her roles of physician, lawyer, political activist and always wife. Her cunning ways provoked some and impressed others, but no matter how she affected people, her energy, excitement and intelligence allowed her to reach new heights. Although only an ethereal image of Aline remains in the north, she had a hand in shaping Alaska's public health policy and its banking laws.

Aline's commanding presence caused family friend Meta Bloom Buttnick to remark, "Daddy admired her. Mother obeyed her. We all loved her."(60) An epitaph well suited for this pioneering Alaska woman.

(The author is an independent historian in Fairbanks)

FOOTNOTES

  1. Aline Bradley to Walter E. Clark, April 26, 1911, Territorial Governor's Office, General Correspondence (hereafter TGO), Record Group 101, Series 130, Box 100, Folder 100-3, "Banks and Banking 1911," Alaska State Archives, Juneau, Alaska.
  2. Aline Beegler's Probate File #224216, Superior Court, Los Angeles County, California. Smith College Archives, Northampton, Massachusetts. National Genealogical Society, Deceased Physician File, Arlington, Virginia. 1920 U. S. Census for Illinois and Massachusetts.
  3. Thomas Neville Bonner, To the Ends of the Earth. Women's Search for Education in Medicine (Cambridge and London: Harvard University Press, 1992), 11.
  4. "Register of Alumnae, Woman's Medical College of Pennsylvania," Archives and Special Collections, Hahnemann University, Philadelphia, PA.
  5. "Report on Physician's Record Search," National Genealogical Society, Deceased Physician File, Arlington, VA.
  6. "Keen Interest In Concert," Fairbanks Daily News-Miner, August 8, 1907.
  7. Fairbanks Daily Times, August 11 and 18, 1907
  8. "In Places of Worship," Fairbanks Sunday Times, August 18, 1907.
  9. Evangeline Atwood, Frontier Politics: Alaska's James Wickersham (Portland, OR: Bindord & Mort, 1979), 103.
  10. Meta Bloom Buttnick to author, September 8, 1998.
  11. "Dr. Baskerville Dies After Long Illness," and "Great Tribute To His Memory," Fairbanks Daily News-Miner, September 9 and 10, 1908.
  12. Meta Bloom Buttnick to author, September 8, 1998.
  13. "Affidavit of L. R. Gillette in the matter of the application of Dr. Aline Bradley for admission to practice law in the Territory of Alaska," Territorial District Court Records, Alaska State Archives, Juneau, Alaska.
  14. Ladies Aid Society, Presbyterian Church, First Catch Your Moose, The Fairbanks Cookbooks, 1909 (Fairbanks: Tanana-Yukon Historical Society, 1999), ix.
  15. "Hospital Fair Now In Full Swing At The Auditorium," Fairbanks Daily News-Miner, November 9, 1910.
  16. "Choral Club Will Be Formed This Winter," Fairbanks Daily News-Miner, November 15, 1910.
  17. "Dr. Bradley Slighted," The Alaska Citizen, November 23, 1914.
  18. Terrence Cole, E. T. Barnette: The Strange Story of the Man Who Founded Fairbanks (Anchorage: Northwest Publishing Company, 1981), 124.
  19. For a comprehensive history of banking in Alaska see Terrence Cole and Elmer E. Rasmuson, Banking on Alaska The Story of The National Bank of Alaska (Anchorage: National Bank of Alaska, 2000).
  20. "Committee Declines To Accept Contract," Fairbanks Weekly Times, March 15, 1911. (The committee members were: E. T. Wolcott, L. N. Jesson, Aline Bradley, J. E. Robarts, W. A. Shinkle, Jesse Noble, and Thomas H. Gibson.)
  21. Ibid. "Final Report by Grand Jury," Fairbanks Weekly Times, March 29, 1911. (The following thirteen men were impaneled as juroirs on February 14, 1911: George Marcus, R. T. Kubbon, Edwin C. Johnson, Ross Drennen, Robert Compton, C. J. Stewart, W. C. Harp, Charles Webb, Walter G. Gox, Arthur Thomas, N. A. Shaw, George Jestel, John Flannagan. Due to lack of United States citizenship Marcus Jestel and Flannagan were excused. Mr. Shaw was appointed foreman. [Foreign Corporation Docket, U. S. District Court of Alaska, Fourth Division, State Archives, Juneau, Alaska]).
  22. "What We Are Up Against," Editorial, Fairbanks Weekly Times, March 29, 1911.
  23. The committee members were: Aline Bradley, Kate Farrell, Mrs. J. K. Smart, Mrs. M. C. Cambridge and Mrs. J. H. Condit, wife of the Presbyterian minister. ("Petition of Depositors of Defendant in Intervention, No. 1597, District Court Fourth Division, District of Alaska, TGO.)
  24. Aline Bradley to Walter E. Clark, April 26, 1911, TGO.
  25. Ibid.
  26. Ibid.
  27. Ibid.
  28. "Our Bank Wreckers To Be Brought To Time," Fairbanks Daily News, May 11, 1911.
  29. "Back To Help Bank Matters, Says Barnette," Fairbanks Weekly Times, June 26, 1911.
  30. Cole, 136.
  31. Ibid., 137.
  32. "Depositors Burn Three Effigies," Fairbanks Weekly Times, January 13, 1913.
  33. Jessie Bloom, 1974 Memoir, American Jewish Archives Collection, (hereafter AJAC), Archives, Alaska and Polar Regions Department, Elmer E. Rasmuson Library, University of Alaska Fairbanks, 55.
  34. Session Laws, Resolutions and Memorials 1913 (Juneau: Daily Empire Print, 1913), 89-103. Cole and Rasmuson, 22-23.
  35. Town Council Meeting Minutes, October 17, 1913, City of Fairbanks Historical Records, (hereafter CFHR), Archives, Alaska and Polar Regions Department, Elmer E. Rasmuson Library, University of Alaska Fairbanks. (The vote tally was: Aline Bradley 4; J. A. Sutherland 1; M. F. Hall 1; Melville E. Evans 0.)
  36. Ibid., October 31, 1913 and November 7, 1913.
  37. Governor J. F. A. Strong to Dr. Aline B. Bradley, January 2, 1914, Medical Board files, State Archives, Juneau, Alaska. (Aline served with seven other physicians: H. C. DeVighne of Juneau; J. L. Myers of Ketchikan; J. H. Mustard and J. M. Sloan of Nome; J. H. Romig of Seward; Charles H. Winana of Valdez; J. A. Sutherland of Fairbanks.)
  38. James Wickersham Diary, November 11, 1914, Alaska State Library, Alaska Historical Collections, Juneau, Alaska. Affidavit of L. R. Gillette, April 2, 1917, District Court Records, 4th Division, State Archives, Juneau, Alaska.
  39. Ernest Hurst Cherrington, Editor, Standard Encyclopedia of the Alcohol Problem, (Westerville, Ohio, 1925) 86-87.
  40. James Wickersham to Governor J. F. A. Strong, Dr. Aline Bradley and M. W. Griffith, February 2, 1917, James Wickersham Collection, Box 72, Scrapbook III, Alaska State Library, Alaska Historical Collections, Juneau, Alaska. "Prohibition Bill For Alaska Ready For Wilson's Name," Alaska Citizen, February 5, 1917.
  41. Governor Strong to Ernest Hurst Cherrington, General Manager, Anti-Saloon League of America, Westerville, Ohio, March 14, 1918, Files of the Alaskan Territorial Governors, J. F. A. Strong, Microfilm Roll #55, Federal Archives and Records Center, Anchorage, Alaska.
  42. J. F. A. Strong to Aline Bradley, September 1, 1917, J. F. A. Strong Papers, Box 1, Folder 25, Archives, Alaska and Polar Regions Department, Elmer E. Rasmuson Library, University of Alaska Fairbanks.
  43. "Dr. Bradley Is Admitted To Bar," and "Admission of Attorney Held Up Temporarily," Fairbanks Daily News-Miner, October 2, 1917 and October 3, 1917.
  44. Town Council Meeting Minutes, April 10, 1917, CFHR.
  45. "Almost Two To One Vote For Citizen Ticket," Fairbanks Daily News-Miner, April 4, 1917.
  46. "Petition For Naturalization By J. F. Bradley," Fairbanks Daily News-Miner, October 30, 1917.
  47. "Will Protest Naturalizing," Alaska Citizen, February, 11, 1918.
  48. Death Record for J. F. Bradley, Fairbanks Death and Birth Records, Box 1, Archives, Alaska and Polar Regions Department, Elmer E. Rasmuson Library, University of Alaska Fairbanks.
  49. "In the Matter of Admission to the Bar of Aline Bradley," January 6, 1919, Attorney License Files, Alaska State Archives, Juneau, Alaska.
  50. Ibid., November 8, 1920.
  51. "Court Notes," Fairbanks Daily News-Miner, March 5, 1921.
  52. Mary Zimmerman to "My dear 'Rachel,' " Margaret Keenan Harrais Collection, Box 1, Folder 1, Archives, Alaska and Polar Regions Department, Elmer E. Rasmuson Library, University of Alaska Fairbanks.
  53. "Mike Beegler Is A Benedict," Fairbanks Daily News-Miner, February 10, 1913.
  54. Beegler/Bradley marriage certificate, Bureau of Vital Statistics, Department of Health and Social Services, Juneau, Alaska.
  55. "Local Couple Wed Last P. M.," Alaska Citizen, October 23, 1919. Beegler/Bradley marriage certificate.
  56. "Council Names New Magistrate," Fairbanks Daily News-Miner, October 4, 1922. Town Council Meeting Minutes, October 10, 1922, CFHR.
  57. Jessie Bloom, 1974 Memoirs, AJAC, 104. "Brooks Air Trail Blazed Last Night," Fairbanks Daily News-Miner, July 21, 1923.
  58. "Beegler Has Good Season Tolovana," Fairbanks Daily News-Miner, October 15, 1926.
  59. "Mike Beegler Passes Away," Fairbanks Daily News-Miner, August 13, 1931.
  60. Meta Bloom Buttnick to author, September 8, 1998.
     Alaska Time Designed and Developed by Tex R Us LLC.